Die Atom/Energielehre des Vaisheshika ist ein materialistisches Philosophiesystem, welches das Universum als ein Zusammenspiel von Atomen, Kräften und Naturgesetzen ansieht und auf logischem, eindeutigem, naturwissenschaftlichem Denken beruht. Danach besteht die Welt aus Atomen, verschiedenen Kräften und Energien.
Im Vordergund stehen logisch-naturwissenschaftliche und materialistische Lehren.
Das Vaiśeṣika enthält grundlegende Kategorien des Erkennens, um zu einer geordneten Wahrnehmung des Kosmos zu gelangen.
anor aniyan mahato mahiyan - atmasya jantor nihito guhayam /
tam akratuh pasyati vita soko - dhatuh prasadan mahimanam atmanah
Vom höchsten Gesichtspunkt aus verkörpert Gott sowohl das begrenzte als auch das unbegrenzte Bewusstsein. Er ist das winzigste Insekt und gleichzeitig ist Er der unermessliche Kosmos. Er ist kleiner als das Kleinste und größer als das Größte. Anor aniyan mahato mahiyan... Er ist entfernter als das Entfernteste und näher als das Nächste.
"Sowohl die Überseele [Param/Vibhu-Atma] als auch die winzig kleine Seele [anu/ jiv-Atma] sitzen auf dem gleichen Baum des Körpers, im gleichen Herzen des Lebewesens, und nur jemand, der von allen materiellen Wünschen und Klagen frei geworden ist, kann durch die Gnade des Höchsten die Herrlichkeit der Seele verstehen."
Anu ist die Bezeichnung für Atom in der Atom/Energielehre des Vaisheshika. Die Atome werden als so klein beschrieben, das sie keine Ausdehnung besitzen, d.h. die Einteilung auf innen und aussen trifft für sie nicht zu, also nicht wie in der herkömmlichen, materialistischen Wissenschaft.
In the Vedic language God and the realized individuals are described as “anor aniyan mahato mahiyan” (Katha Upanisad 1-2-20), meaning “God is smaller than the smallest and greater than the greatest.”
This means that whether something is extremely large or infinitesimal, it is still made of the same divine source.
God is present everywhere and in everyone.
The Upanishads tell us repeatedly that Brahman or Atman are not just sterile intellectual constructs of a theoretical philosophy but are realities that can be experienced by every individual.
Today, science and religion say that a single entity or force created the universe and is omnipresent, maintaining and governing the fundamental machinery of everything in this and other universes.
In Hinduism, Brahman is the one supreme, universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the universe.
In the Rig Veda proclaims,
“Ekam Sat, Viprah Bahudha Vadanti,” which means
“there is only one truth, only men describe it in different ways.”
Recent scientific discoveries validate the concept of Brahman.
Physicists and cosmologists call this divine source the Unified Field. In a profound sense, Brahman (the Vedantic concept) and the Unified Field of physics appear to be synonymous.
Vedanta is a word used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts known also as the Upanishads.
Vedanta philosophy has two main concepts.
The first is the human’s real nature is divine and the second concept is that the aim of human life is to realize this divinity.
Quantum physicists, neuroscientists, psychologists and mystics have evolved to the point where a significant paradigm shift is happening as predicted by Dr Amit Goswami, endowed with a Rishis insight:
“While mainstream science remains materialist, a substantial number of scientists are supporting and developing a paradigm based on the primacy of consciousness…”
The universe, in order to exist, requires a conscious sentient being to be aware of it.
The universe is and can be viewed as symbiotically and totally unbroken, interconnected, highly networked, integrated, and harmonized.
The entire universe is contained holographically in each of its parts, unifying matter, energy and consciousness by systems, subsystems and sub, sub, systems at macro and at micro levels through nonlocal, local, vacuum energy, strings and other entities yet to be understood or to be established.
The consciousness that comprises the universe can be tapped into by practicing the yogic art of laser focusing of the mind through Mantras, leading to downloading of the contents of transcendent domains through tuned resonant circuits by kindling one’s mind there while tending towards Brahmatejas (the effulgence of Brahman).
Zu Anbeginn des dunklen Zeitalters des Kali (vor ca. 5115 Jahren) sah der Weise Vyasadeva, dass das Gedächtnis der Menschen degeneriert war und so machte er sich daran die Veden auf Palmblättern niederzuschreiben.
Vyasadeva hatte daher die achtzehn Puranas, die sehr alte historische Berichte von der Erde und anderen Planeten sind, in 382.000 Versen zusammengestellt.
Dann hat er das Mahabharata, die Geschichte Indiens , die aus 200.000 Versen besteht, inclusive Bhagavad-Gita, welche direkt von Lord Krishna vor 5.000 Jahren selbst gesprochen wurde, verfasst.
Vyasadeva hat auch die 108 Upanishaden zusammengestellt.
Śrī Brahma-saḿhitā 5.35
He is an undifferentiated entity as there is no distinction between potency and the possessor there of. In His work of creation of millions of worlds, His potency remains inseparable. All the universes exist in Him and He is present in His fullness in every one of the atoms that are scattered throughout the universe, at one and the same time. Such is the primeval Lord whom I adore.
Kṛṣṇa is the highest of all entities. In Him is an entity which is termed cit (spiritual) which is distinct from the principle of limitation. By His inconceivable power, He can at will create numberless universes. All the mundane universes owe their origin to the transformation of His external potency. Again His abode is beyond human conception; since all worlds, limited and spiritual (cit) exist in Him and He resides simultaneously in His fullness and entirety in all the atoms in all the worlds. All-pervasiveness is only a localized aspect of the majesty of Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of all. Though He is all-pervasive yet in His existence everywhere in a medium shape consists His spiritual Lordship beyond human conception.
year (1959) A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada published a small essay Easy Journey to Other Planets. He began this work by quoting the above information and went on to say that indeed, two worlds did exist, the material and the spiritual, but the nature of the spiritual world was that it could never be annihilated.
I first read Easy Journey to Other Planets in 1969 and for many years after that I wondered why there hadn’t been further research into the concept of antiparticles or anti-worlds. Almost 40 years later I was pleasantly surprised to learn
that the theory of anti-worlds has been a hot topic of physics research all those years and remains so even today. In fact the anti-world theory now occupies a prominent place in theoretical physics as the Multiverse Hypothesis, sometimes known as Parallel Universes.
Progress however in the Multiverse Hypothesis hasn’t been much to write home about. Concepts keep changing and no one has yet to make actual contact with a Multiverse or Parallel Universe. In other words there haven’t been any tangible results in the field of Multiverse research. But of course, the scientists (physicists) who are doing the research are worthy of respect, honor, great laudations and sizable salaries because, even though unable to actually ‘prove’ their theories, they are great and deserve the perks of greatness, because they are able to think about such lofty concepts. They are great minds.
But what about the writers and commentators of Vedic literature who spoke of the anti-material world (Paravyoma and Vaikuntha) many centuries before the great minds of the west even realized that the Earth wasn’t flat! Aren’t those Vedic seers worthy of being counted as great thinkers, great minds and men of scientific fiber? If so, then why do we not give them their due and, more importantly, why do today’s scientists, physicists and researchers not pay closer attention to their ancient achievements? I don’t have the answer for that.
Lets look at some of the Vedic concepts and achievements in addition to Parallel Universes that have become trends in modern scientific disciplines and even quintessential to science itself.
In Kapila-deva’s system of Sankhya, the analytical study of material nature, matter develops from subtle to gross. The qualities of an element exist before the gross manifestation of the element. That is quite different than the way most of us think of matter. For example, aroma is the quality of earth and we therefore think that first there is the substance earth and then the aroma. But in the Sankhya, or Vedic way of thinking, it is just the opposite. First there exists the quality of aroma and then earth is manifest – everything begins from the subtle plane and moves toward the gross.
The subtlest aspect of matter in Sankhya is ‘vibration’ – also thought of as a sound vibration or frequency. That most subtle existence that precedes every and all aspects of matter is a vibration or sound called tan-matra. In layman’s terms, in Sankhya, a vibration or sound lies at the basis of matter. Everything springs from that original vibration — the basis of everything lies in sound.
Respectively, String Theory (a developing branch of theoretical physics that combines quantum mechanics and general relativity into a quantum theory of gravity) has connotations similar to the Sankhya conception of tan-matra or sound vibration being the basis of matter.
Then there is the theoretical physics concerning Dark Matter or the missing mass in the universe. Physicists conclude, based on research, that as much as 80% of the mass of this universe has gone missing or is undetectable. Simply put, to account for the amount of gravity in the universe, 80% more matter than is visible is required. Where is it?
The first person to provide evidence and infer the existence of a phenomenon that has come to be called ‘dark matter’ was Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky, of the California Institute of Technology in 1933. Zwicky applied the viral theorem to the Coma cluster of galaxies and obtained evidence of unseen mass. Zwicky estimated the cluster's total mass based on the motions of galaxies near its edge and compared that estimate to one based on the number of galaxies and total brightness of the cluster. He found that there was about 400 times more estimated mass than was visually observable. The gravity of the visible galaxies in the cluster would be far too small for such fast orbits, so something extra was required. This is known as the "missing mass problem". Based on these conclusions, Zwicky inferred that there must be some non-visible form of matter that would provide enough of the mass and gravity to hold the cluster together. That was the beginning for the search for Dark Matter.
Seventy-six years later, science is still looking for Dark Matter. They know it is literally everywhere, but it escapes detection and thus they are unable to observe it. Millions of taxpayer’s dollars are spent every year by western super powers in the search for Dark Matter. Nothing has turned up yet.
On a parallel platform, Sankhya identifies a material element that among its other qualities is, for the most part, elusive (emphasis on elusive). It is everywhere (all-pervading) but at the same time undetectable (ethereal). That element in Sankhya is called nabhas, or as mentioned in Bhagavad-gita, kham.
The activities/qualities and characteristics of the kham element in Sankhya can be observed as accommodating space/room for existence. Space itself, both internal and external, is the element kham. This then, if taken notice of by physicists, may very well fit nicely into the ‘missing mass problem’. Kham, being a material element, could theoretically be assigned a numerical code in the periodic table of elements like everything else – then they might find what they are looking for.
In the Vedic way of thinking the physical element is secondary to its qualities — when the qualities of a particular thing are understood, it is as good as or better than having the grosser subject at hand. In that sense modern science has already discovered Dark Matter, because they have understood something of its qualities… they just haven’t realized it yet.
In the Srimad Bhagavatam we find the following verse:
bhutanam chidra-datrtvam bahir antaram eva ca
pranendriyatma-dhisnyatvam nabhaso vrtti-laksanam
The activities and characteristics of the ethereal element can be observed as accommodation for the room for the external and internal existences of all living entities, namely the field of activities of the vital air, the senses and the mind. (Bhag. 3.26.34)
In his purport to this verse, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada says that the Sankhya understanding of nabhas or kham (that he has called in English ‘the ethereal element’) is the basis for great scientific research:
This verse is the potential basis of great scientific research work, for it explains how subtle forms are generated from the ethereal element (nabhah), what their characteristics and actions are, and how the tangible elements, namely air, fire, water and earth, are manifested from the subtle form.
Sankhya does not simply list the basic material elements, but it explains quite scientifically how those elements evolve from the subtlest plane of existence up to the divisions of the universe — this is quite elaborate and scientific indeed.
Yet for science to take full advantage of the Sankhya understanding of matter and to discover how the universe came into being, they will have to do more than just add kham/nabhas to their list of elements, they will have to add ahankara (ego), mana (the mind) and buddhi (intelligence) to their table of elements for, indeed, Sankhya lists these as material elements. However, these elements ahankara, mana and buddhi are categorized as even more subtle than kham, because they are closer in character to atma, consciousness.
Beyond the gross and subtle material elements being added to the scientific table of elements, Sankhya says that a complete understanding of existence, of reality, is not possible without adding two transcendental, anti-material concepts – namely atma and Paramatma (consciousness and super-consciousness). This, it seems, science struggles with even more than Dark Matter. We have dubbed it ‘Light Matter’.