.........Budhanilkantha Nepal
.........Budhanilkantha Nepal

Der große Weise Narada sprach:Was wäre mit der Unterwelt vergleichbar, wo die Nagas mit hervorragenden,wunderschönen und freudestrahlenden Juwelen geschmückt werden? Wer würde sich nicht in der Unterwelt erfreuen, wo die bezaubernden Töchter der Dämonen umherwandern und sogar die härtesten Asketen faszinieren, wo die Sonne am Tage freundlich ohne Hitze scheint und der Mond bei Nacht klar ohne Kälte, wo sich die Söhne der Dämonen köstlicher Speisen und guter Weine erfreuen und nicht merken, wie die Zeit vergeht?

Dort gibt es wunderschöne Gärten, Flüsse und Seen, wo Lotusblumen wachsen, und die Himmel hallen von den Liedern des Koils wider (ein bezaubernder Singvogel) Herrliche Ornamente, duftende Parfüme, reiche Salben, harmonische Musik der Lauten, Flöten und Trommeln sowie viele andere Vergnügen werden dort den Danavas, Daityas und Nagas zuteil, welche die Bereiche der Unterwelt bewohnen.

 

Unter den sieben Bereichen der Unterwelt befindet sich die Form von Vishnu, welche aus der natürlichen Qualität der Trägheit entsteht und Sesha genannt wird (die Urschlange, auf der Vishnu während der Weltennacht ruht)

Die Himmlischen nennen es Ananta.

Es hat tausend Köpfe, die mit mystischen Zeichen geziert sind, und die tausend Juwelen auf seinen Köpfen strahlen durch alle Bereiche. Zum Wohle der Welt begrenzt dieses Wesen die Kraft der Dämonen und seine Augen rollen im Rausch. Jeder Kopf trägt Ohrring, Diadem und einen Kranz. Dieses Wesen strahlt wie die weißen Berge oder das Feuer. Es trägt purpurrote Kleidung, Ornamente mit einer weißen Kette und erscheint wie ein zweiter Kailash, von dem die himmlische Ganga herabfließt. In einer Hand hält es den Pflug und in der anderen die Keule. Dieses selbststrahlende Wesen wird besonders von der Göttin des Wohlstandes und der Göttin Varuni verehrt.

Am Ende des Kalpas (des Schöpfungstages) kommt aus seinen Mündern ein allesvernichtendes Feuer, das eine Verkörperung von Rudra ist und die drei Welten verschlingt. Sesha trägt als Erscheinung der Gottheit diese ganze Welt wie ein Diadem auf seinem Kopf und ist das Fundament, auf dem die sieben Bereiche der Unterwelt Patala ruhen. Seine Macht, sein Ruhm, seine Form und sein Wesen können nicht beschrieben werden, und nicht einmal die Götter können es begreifen. Wer sollte auch seine Kraft ermessen, der diese ganze Erde wie eine Blumengirlande trägt, purpurrot eingefärbt durch das Licht von den Juwelen seiner Köpfe.

Wenn Ananta mit trunkenen Augen gähnt, dann erbebt die Erde mit all ihren Wäldern, Bergen, Flüssen und Ozeanen. Nicht einmal die Gandharvas, Apsaras, Siddhas, Kinnaras, Nagas und Charanas können ihn wahrhaft preisen,und deshalb wird er der Unendliche (Ananta) und Unvergängliche genannt. Die Sandelholzpaste, die von den Frauen der Nagas gerieben wird, tritt durch seinen Atem aus und verbreitet seinen Duft im ganzen Himmel.

Nachdem Sesha vom uralten Weisen Garga besänftigt wurde, erhielt er von ihm dieKenntnisse der Astrologie über die Planeten und ihre guten und schlechten Einflüsse am Himmel. Und die Erde, die vom Haupt dieser mächtigen Urschlange gestützt wird, stütztihrerseits wieder die Reihe der Bereiche, in denen die Menschen, Götter und Dämonen wohnen.http://www.pushpak.de/vishnu/pdf/vishnu_purana.pdf

Sukadeva Gosvami continued: This great universe, situated on one of Lord Anantadeva's thousands of hoods, appears just like

a white mustard seed.

 

It is infinitesimal compared to the hood of Lord Ananta.

 

My dear King, approximately 240,000 miles beneath the planet Patala lives

another incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

He is the expansion of Lord Vishnu known as Lord Ananta or Lord Sankarsana.

 

He is always in the transcendental position, but because He is worshiped by Lord Shiva, the deity of tamo-guna or darkness, He is sometimes called tamasi.

 

Ananta Shesa the Cosmic Snake is situated beneath Bhu-mandala and the subterranean worlds. Staying there, He supports the world on His head, as stated in

Srimad-Bhagavatam 5.25.2:

 

In his Laghu-bhagavatamrta 3.86, Srila Rupa Gosvami

describes Lord Shesa as an expansion of Lord Balarama,

and specifically mentions that He supports the earth:

 

He [Balarama] is Sankarsana, the second member of the catur-vyuha, who

becomes Shesa for holding up the earth.

Similarly, in his commentary to SB 5.25.13, Srila Jiva Gosvami states

Although the Lords form [as Anantadeva]

appears to have a small finite size, it is infinite.

 

Bhu-mandala is just atomic [in comparison].

Here, the comparison of Bhu-mandala to an atom is made with reference to Anantas bearing the world on one of His heads, and being unaware of its presence there.

 

Thus, Bhu-mandala is supported by Ananta Shesa.

Thus, being supported by Ananta, the earth does not fall down into the Garbha Ocean.

At this stage one may ask, “Why, without the support of Ananta, would it fall into the Garbha ocean?

Or for that matter, why does the water of that ocean stay at the bottom of the universe?” The answer to these questions delves into the topic of what is currently referred to as gravity.

In order to develop an understanding of this we shall first consider a few important features of the layout of the universe as it is described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam and other scriptures.

 

In the beginning, Garbhodakashayi Vishnu entered the universe and filled half of it with the water created from His own persipartion. He then lay down on that water on Ananta Shesa.

This is described by Srila Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami as follows (Caitanya-caritamrta Adi-lila,5.94-96):

 

After creating millions of universes, the first purusha entered into each of them in a separate form, as Shri Garbhodakashayi.

Entering the universe, He found only darkness, with no place in which to reside. Thus He began to consider. Then He created water from the perspiration of His own body and with that water filled half the universe.

 

This ocean fills the bottom half of the universe, and its manifestation occurs before the creation of the fourteen worlds.

Therefore, the attractive force that draws it to the bottom of

the universe must not arise from any planets or planetary systems.

 

 

Rather, it is only a result of the Lord‖s potency that this water stays in that place. Following the manifestation of this water, Lord Brahma takes his birth, and gradually he creates the fourteen planetary systems.

In this regard, Brahma is empowered by the Lord to create.

 

These fourteen worlds are described in CC Adi-lila, 5.98

After filling half the universe with water, He made His own residence therein and manifested the fourteen worlds in the other half.

The fourteen worlds are enumerated in SB 2.5

The upper planetary systems are (1) Bhu, (2) Bhuvar, (3) Svar, (4)

Mahar, (5) Janas, (6) Tapas and (7) Satya.

The seven lower planetary systems are

(1) Tala, (2) Atala, (3) Vitala, (4) Nitala, (5) Talatala, (6) Mahatala and (7) Sutala. The lower planets as a whole are called Patala.

 

Thus, the upper half of the universe is filled with fourteen vertically stratified planetary systems, and the lower half is filled with water.

The dimension of each of these layers is provided in the Fifth Canto of SB and a simple representation is shown in diagram 1.

 

Diagram 1: Vertical layout of the universe

 

In the Bhagavatam, the pastime of Lord Varahas lifting the earth from the

Garbha Ocean is recounted.

At that time, the earth was submerged in that ocean due to having fallen, or

having been knocked, from its position. The Lord‖s lifting of the earth is described by Lord Brahma in SB 2.7.1:

 

Lord Brahma said: When the unlimitedly powerful Lord assumed the form of a

boar as a pastime, just to lift the planet earth, which was drowned in the great

ocean of the universe called the Garbhodaka, the first demon [Hiranyaksha]

appeared, and the Lord pierced him with His tusk.

Thus, it is clear, that when the planetary systems are disturbed, they may fall towards the bottom of the universe.

 

This is confirmed by Srila Prabhupada in his purport to the above

verse, where he states:

 

Only under certain conditions do the planets float as weightless balls in the air,

and as soon as these conditions are disturbed, the planets may fall down in the

Garbhodaka Ocean, which covers half the universe.

 

Considering this, it is evident that the bottom of the universe, or the direction of down, is that side wherein the Garbha Ocean sits. The directions, like all else, have there origin in the Personality of Godhead. This is described by Sukadeva Gosvami in Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.1.29:

 

His arms are the demigods headed by Indra, the ten directional sides are His ears,

and physical sound is His sense of hearing. His nostrils are the two Ashvini kumaras,

and material fragrance is His sense of smell. His mouth is the blazing fire.

 

Thus, the Lord establishes all the directions as part of His primary creation.

These directions are numbered as ten in the Vedic schema:

the four cardinal directions (east, south, west & north),

the four intermediate directions (north-east, south-east, south-west & north-west), and the two directions of up and down.

 

There is a different person governing each of these

directions, and collectively these individulas are known as the dik-palas, the governors of the directions.

It is important for the present discussion to note that the downward direction (adhaù) isruled by Ananta.

Ruling the downward direction, He supports the world and the entire

universe. As such, a deity of Ananta Shesa is traditionally established as the foundation and support of important buildings such as temples.

 

But why do things fall down? Modern science attempts to explain this by the law of gravity. It should be noted, however, that the explanation given by this is quite rudimentary.

For classical theories of gravity, every material object is ascribed an attractive force that it exerts on all other matter. This attractive force is said to be a natural consequence of the mass of the object.

Significantly, there is no reason or explanation given by this theory as to why the

force exists or how it acts from a distance.

 

Indeed, Isaac Newton who formulated the mathematics of this theory, abhorred the idea of there being no such explanations.

Or, if one considers the concepts of gravity in general relativity, one finds that the

explanation is again unsatisfactory.

Matter is said to curve spacetime and the curvature of

spacetime is said to be the cause of what is experienced as gravitational force.

 

Of course, in this theory there is no elucidation of the exact nature of mass, energy, space or time; and as such, the nature of their interactions is also unclear.

 

Thus, while a series of mathematical formulae are established that apparently describe the action of gravity, there remains no real explanation of the purpose or cause of this well known phenomenon.

 

Therefore, such theories can hardly be considered comprehensive.